|Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris |
Other Common Names: shovelcat, mudcat, yellow cat
The flathead catfish has a broad, flat head, with a lower jaw protruding beyond the upper jaw. Its back and sides are brown to yellow, with black-to olive-brown mottling, fading to a dirty white or yellow belly. Inside the mouth on the upper jaw, it has a large tooth plate with backward extensions on each end.
Habitats and Habits
Flathead catfish are native to the river basins of the Gulf of Mexico, such as the Mississippi River Basin. Although native to the New River and several other river basins in North Carolina, they have been introduced to many river basins that flow to the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Neuse, Yadkin and Cape Fear. They are most common in large rivers and lakes where they often inhabit deep, slow stretches near submerged logs, brush, rip rap and underwater piles of debris.
Flatheads feed primarily on live fish. Due to their large size and appetite, flatheads have been associated with declines of several native fish species in waters where they have been introduced. Biologists are conducting research on the life history characteristics of introduced flathead catfish to gain a better understanding of this species. One recent study reported movements of individual flatheads up to 25 miles over a 12-to 18-month period.
Due to possible problems associated with flathead catfish introductions, anglers should not move flathead catfish from one waterbody to another.
Live fish, such as shad, panfish and bullhead catfish, are the preferred baits for large flathead catfish. Crawfish are reported to work as well. Flathead catfish are rarely caught with chicken livers and stinkbaits, although these work well for most other catfish species.